Long-Term Jobs Abroad
Many ESL Jobs Available for Uncertified Teachers
Teaching abroad is one of the most accessible and popular options for paid or inexpensive long-term stays overseas. Considerable cultural immersion is possible, especially if you already have some knowledge of the host country's language. But proficiency in the local language is rarely a requirement for obtaining a position. Here we review the great number of possibilities for those without teaching credentials.
The bulk of overseas teaching opportunities are for English teachers. As the world rushes to acquire the new lingua franca of international commerce, diplomacy, and higher education, your "credential" is simply being a native speaker of the English language. That may be all you need to obtain a job and a work permit in areas such as Asia and Eastern Europe. In addition to native fluency in English, many programs are now requesting experience in Teaching English as a Foreign (or Second) Language, known by the acronyms TEFL, EFL, TESL, ESL, or even TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages).
Formal credentials in TEFL can be gained in a one-month course (see Susan Griffiths book on Teaching English Abroad). This could open doors in extremely competitive areas like Western Europe. Those with a Master's in TEFL, available through a one-year program at many universities, can teach virtually anywhere.
Qualified teachers have still another range of options—see the chapter Teaching Abroad in Transitions Abroads Work Abroad.
Other teaching possibilities, some of which we list here, exist for those with knowledge of special fields such as business, health, math or science (through the Peace Corps) or for graduate students (through the Civic Education Project).
Earnings can be good in the relatively wealthy countries of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. In China, and Eastern Europe, pay may be high by local standards but not sufficient for savings. Africa and Latin America are primarily served by volunteer organizations. Western Europe presents dim prospects for Americans, even those with formal credentials, because British and Irish teachers do not need work permits as members of the European Union.
In general, if your main motivation in teaching is to make a lot of money, you will likely be disappointed. In some cases the experience may even cost you more than you earn, but this is usually still far less than the cost of study or travel abroad. (Student loans can often be deferred during volunteer work; inquire through your loan and program sponsors.)
Before You Begin
Before you begin your search, determine what you hope to gain from your overseas experience. Are your goals to experience a different culture? Gain language proficiency? Try out teaching as a career? How important is money--do you hope to make a lot of money, is it okay to break even, or can you spend more than you might make for the sake of the cross-cultural experience?
The answers to your money questions may limit your choices. The highest number of well-paying teaching jobs are in Asia.
Next, try to narrow down your geographic preferences to a few countries or regions. Do you hope to tie your experience to career objectives? How does this affect the money issue?
About a year before you would like to begin teaching abroad, think about getting TEFL experience or a certificate. You will be glad you did the first time you face a class thousands of miles from home. Opportunities are available as a literacy volunteer or through local ESL programs for international students or refugees offered by colleges, schools, and religious organizations almost everywhere.
Finding a Job
There are several strategies for finding an overseas teaching position. One is applying through a U.S.-based organization. These usually arrange placement and provide for logistical matters, such as housing and a work permit.
The second strategy is to write directly to overseas schools. Chances of success are limited without going to that country for an interview.
The third strategy is to go to the country where you want to work and apply in person. The major downside to this is cost: airfare, housing (possibly paying several months rent up front), and the need to travel to a third country to get a work permit once you land a job. The total up-front investment required by this last approach could easily be $2,000-$3,000 or more--something to keep in mind when evaluating program fees.
We generally recommend applying through U.S.-based organizations rather than seeking a job on-site because of the uncertainty and expense of the latter two strategies.
Most U.S.-based teaching placement organizations are small nonprofits, some staffed by volunteers. All (except for private language schools) view their primary mission as cultural exchange, not as overseas jobs.
Choosing a Placement Program
Programs vary widely in the fees, services, and assistance they offer. When choosing a program, inquire about: fees, salary, job placement, work permit, health insurance, housing, teacher training and materials, whether there is an orientation, and level of on-site support. It is better to be clear about these basics before you apply than to turn up and find you do not have a legal work permit.
Fees. What exactly do they include?
Placement. Find out who you will be teaching (elementary, high school, university students, or adults?) and where (a state school, private school, or for-profit language institute?).
Salary. How much and how often will you be paid? Compare your salary with the local cost of living.
Health insurance may not be provided by program fees, or you may be covered by socialized medicine available only in-country. Consider special comprehensive coverage for educators provided by such organizations as John Hancock or Wallach and Company.
Materials and training. If they dont provide materials, what do they recommend to bring with you? Even if some training is provided, would it still be useful to get experience teaching or tutoring in the U.S.?
The following list includes a wide variety of options through U.S.-based organizations. Most organizations prefer a commitment of one academic year. A bachelor's degree is a minimum requirement for most positions. Unless otherwise indicated, participants are responsible for round-trip transportation and health insurance. Please Note: Program eligibility, policies, and destinations are subject to change. Please visit the listed websites for more information on the teaching programs of interest.
English Language Teaching Assistant Program [ELTAP] (Univ. of Minnesota, Morris, www.umabroad.umn.edu). Participants sent to countries on four continents to teach English throughout the year.
Friends of World Teaching (www.fowt.com). Lists English-language K-12 schools in over 100 countries. Teacher usually pays airfare; housing, stipend and/or health insurance may be provided depending on country. Most positions are salaried. Applicants must have at least a bachelor's degree and be able to demonstrate teaching ability. For $20, you receive school listings for three countries (choose countries when submitting request).
Fulbright English Teaching Assistantships (See your campus Fulbright advisor or visit us.fulbrightonline.org/thinking_teaching.html). One-year positions available for many countries worldwide. Bachelors degree required. Strong preference given to majors in appropriate foreign language who intend to be teachers.
Global Routes Internship Placements (www.globalroutes.org) places pairs of teaching interns 17 years of age and older in local schools in remote villages in Costa Rica, Ghana, India, Tanzania, and Thailand. Interns live with host families and teach full time in the local schools. They are also expected to complete a community service project.
The International Partnership for Service Learning (www.ipsl.org). Programs for summer, semester, or year combine academic courses for credit with unpaid service work in human services, health care, special education, TEFL, or community development.
U.S. Peace Corps (www.peacecorps.gov). All expenses paid, extensive training, and a "resettlement allowance" of approximately $6,000 after completing 2-year assignment. Placements in over 100 countries. Positions available in teaching English, though math and science teachers especially in demand. Jobs in agriculture, business, health, skilled trades, etc., also available. U.S. citizens only. No upper age limit. No deadline, but allow 9 months between application and placement.
WorldTeach (www.worldteach.org). Places volunteers into 1-year teaching positions in a variety of countries. Six-month placements and summer placements are available as well.
Regular K-12 Teaching Positions at International Schools (www.iss.edu). If you prequalify, the organization provides a database of teaching opportunities online. Charges a fee for maintaining an online profile.
International Foundation for Education and Self-Help (www.ifesh.org). This mentoring program places an ethnically diverse group of experienced American administrators, school teachers, non-professional teachers with special skills, and college professors in formal and informal educational institutions in sub-Saharan African countries. Volunteers spend one academic year helping to improve the educational system in areas such as curriculum and policy development, teacher training, and technical assistance. No participation fees. Work permit, health insurance, orientation, and teaching materials provided.
Eastern Europe, Russia, and the NIS
Camp Counselors USA (www.ccusa.com). Offers an "educational work-travel program" in camps and orphanages across the former Soviet Union. Placement in camp with full room and board and small stipend. Minimum requirements include experience with children, knowledge of a foreign language (Russian helpful).
Project Harmony (www.projectharmony.org). Placements for second semester or full school year in Russia, the Baltics, and the Central Asian republics; most placements outside of major cities. Knowledge of Russian required for Russia. Bachelor's degree required; teaching or tutoring experience preferred.
English Teaching in the Far East
Appalachians Abroad Teach in China (www.marshall.edu/gochina). Participants teach English at K-12 and higher education institutions in Shanghai or Beijing, but placements in other areas also available. Minimum requirements are a bachelors degree. Job placement, work permit, international airfare, housing, health insurance, domestic travel stipend, and paid vacation provided. Salary varies depending on qualifications.
CIEE Teach Abroad Programs (www.ciee.org/teach). CIEE places participants in English teaching positions in China, Chile, Spain, and Thailand. CIEE handles contract negotiation, visa procurement, and health and accident insurance; conducts a week-long orientation to acquaint you with the local language, culture, and teaching techniques; and have staff on the ground in all locations to assist and advise you while you are there.
Colorado China Council (www.asiacouncil.org). Places everyone from BAs to PhDs in teaching positions in the PRC and Mongolia in universities and secondary schools. Degrees in English, TEFL, journalism, business, sciences, engineering especially welcome. No Chinese necessary. Housing, health insurance, stipend paid; some schools will reimburse airfare home.
English Program in Korea—EPIK (www.epik.go.kr). Administered by the Korean government, this is a one-year program for teaching English in Korean schools or provincial in-service training centers. Basic requirement is bachelors degree, but salary increases with experience and/or TEFL certification. No participation or application fees. Airfare, work permit, health insurance, orientation, and housing provided.
JET Program (www.jetprogramme.org). Administered by the Japanese government, this is a one- to three-year program for teaching English in junior or senior high school. Bachelor's degree and U.S. citizenship required. Airfare, salary, orientations, health care, and some teacher training provided. Housing arranged with host institution. A background in Asian Studies, previous experience abroad, teaching experience or other experience with groups of children seem to be advantages. For those with at least intermediate command of Japanese, Coordinator of International Relations positions are available. Required interviews are given at Japanese consulates throughout the U.S. Application deadline first week in December. Early application advised.
Princeton-in-Asia (piaweb.princeton.edu). Paid internship programs for college graduates, usually teaching English, for one or two years in China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam. Teachers may be responsible for transportation. Salary very much country-dependent; housing and health insurance arranged.
Private Language Schools in East Asia
JAPAN. AEON Intercultural Corporation (www.aeonet.com). Recruits teachers for their schools in Japan. Hires year round, 1-year contracts. Must have bachelor's degree or above, must attend interview process in US, Canada or Australia. Furnished apartment, health insurance, teaching materials, teacher training, work visa, and airfare back to USA provided. Send resume and essay about why you would like to live and work in Japan to nearest regional office.
TAIWAN. Hess Language School (Hess Educational Organization (www.hess.com.tw). Recruits teachers for their locations around Taiwan. Must have a bachelor's degree and passport from an English-speaking country. Experience working with children and living in a large city strongly preferred. Salary, assistance in finding housing, health insurance, teaching materials and paid teacher training, and "survival" Chinese classes provided.
KOREA (ELS Language Centers), An international chain of language schools with schools in the U.S. and overseas. Greatest need is in Korea but also across Asia. Minimum requirements are a bachelors degree and a TEFL certificate of 130 hours or more. ELS offers its own 1-month TEFL certificate course; hiring preference given to graduates of this course. Availability of work permit, health insurance, and housing depends on school. Applications accepted year round. Send cover letter, resume, and two references. Indicate availability and preferred country.
Anthony Hand is an alum of the JET Program. He is a Peer Advisor at the Overseas Opportunities Office at the Univ. of Michigan International Center and a graduate student in the School of Information.
William Nolting is the International Center Assistant Director, Education Abroad at the University of Michigan.