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Living and Working in France With or Without a Work Visa

One panorama of Paris.
One of many Paris panoramas.

Suppose you dream of an adventure-filled new life kicking about Europe before booking that open-ended return ticket to glamorous Paris. In that case, there are some things you should know unless you want to wind up back home, broke and disappointed a few short months later.

Most Americans living and working in France fall into one of three categories:

  1. They are married to a French (or another national of the European Union) citizen.
  2. They inherited dual citizenship from their parents.
  3. They are highly skilled professionals sent to their company's French office to achieve a specific task.

Logically, your first option should be to apply for a work visa. But is this the best way to go? According to the French Embassy, Americans can stay in France (without working) for up to three months on a tourist visa. If you want to stay longer than that, you need to apply for a long-term work visa. The problem is that, in most cases, you must have secured a job before you can apply for a work visa. Yet, it is possible in the evolving era of the digital nomad if you are willing to navigate the bureaucracy.

Tony Perla, an American who has worked in the south of France for the past three years as a self-employed builder, says:

"The first challenge is to find a job, not the work permit — hiring someone legally is prohibitive from the point of view of employer commitments (salary, pension, health care, etc.)"

"This leaves very highly specialized people who have a particular talent (programmers, systems analysts, etc.)," says Tony, who is also a board member of the association Americans in Toulouse, "for these jobs, the person must find a company that will sponsor them. That company must then justify that they really need this person because they cannot find an EU-alternative national."

Note that you may work up to 90 days until your tourist visa expires, if you have a business invitation from partners in France or one of the other options described below.

Be careful to calculate the number of days correctly that you may stay in the Schengen Zone. Any overstay can cause complications leaving the zone after waiting more than 90 days, so one easy way to keep track of the days you have stayed and those remaining includes a simple tool such as a Schengen calculator.

Self Employment

An American who works in France in whichever field, without being married to a French person, is, as Tony puts it, "a very rare animal indeed and is likely here on his/her own means."

"It is virtually impossible for them obtain a job with an existing French or American company any longer. The French authorities will require justification that the person has skills that simply do not exist in France, which is quite rare." he says.

"It is possible for them to start a company and employ themselves — that's about all. This will require the usual minimum amounts financially that must be justified as well as payments of all local taxes from which they will not be exonerated (as any resident starting a company would be.)," says Tony.

"There are few restrictions in place if you plan to come over and employ yourself without asking the French government for anything. Some people come over and buy a vineyard, for example, and pay taxes, etc." Tony adds.

However, you may also work longer-term as a "Self-employed person or liberal activity" — should you qualify — which will allow you to extend your stay. If interested, explore the various, sometimes intricate, paths designated on the government website.

Student Visas

The popular alternative to the work visa is to apply for a student visa. Let's suppose you are a student at an official university (and not a language school). In that case, you can work up to 964 hours, corresponding to 60% of regular working hours in France, which is not enough to support yourself but a nice supplement. Quite a few foreigners enroll in a university program to get the right to work in France and receive their official papers to work.

This approach has long been used and abused, which means that the visa was becoming a more difficult thing to come by as the French government clamped down on the number of visas issued, though 400,000 student visas were granted in 2021, and increasing yearly post-pandemic.

But suppose you still have the travel bug even if the official hoops return no rewards bug. In that case, some people come over as a tourist for three months and hop back and forth from France to England for a week to reset their 3-month tourist visa back in France.

Find Jobs in FranceTeaching English

To support yourself, some may opt to risk under-the-table work as a private English tutor, which is available to resourceful and hard-working native-English speakers. You can do well with an email address and a good grammar book.

The best places to advertise this type of work are on university notice boards, English bookshops in the city center of Paris, and the Internet. Those who mention they are native-English speakers get a lot of inquiries.

On the other hand, if you are lucky enough to get a visa that entitles you to work and you want to teach English, you will find that most often, the jobs given to native-English speakers are in teaching technical English.

It's important to note that employers hiring you to teach English don't necessarily speak English themselves, so your interview will be in French. You'll be required to be at least able to speak enough French for negotiations with secretarial staff, to read and respond to essential faculty notices, and to read and understand your work contract.

Once you've got your visa and decided to teach English, then you'll need a degree in anything, preferably be a native speaker of English, and will have a TEFL/CELTA certificate. The International TEFL Academy has a fine article on teaching English in France for Americans and provides its own courses. Many online and other schools worldwide now teach this methodology. The TAPIF Teaching Assistant in France program remains one of the best ways to teach in France for a period of up to 9 months.

You can also apply directly to teach at language schools, international schools, private primary and high schools, and universities.

Still, there are advantages if you are okay with being underpaid at a language school; it is the quickest and easiest way to get a job. The three main benefits are:

1. You don’t need to pay into the social safety net
2. Language schools can be your primary employer, unlike universities
3. It’s a good way to get your foot in the door and develop a network

James, a Scotsman who has written his own French/English dictionary for land surveyors, offers a word of warning to would-be English teachers, however:

"Teaching English is a saturated market [in France]. If you can, you're better off targeting areas like marketing." says James, who now works as a marketing and sales manager at the CNES (Centre Nationale des Etudes Spatiales), Europe's space research program.

Jennifer, a French native with a British degree in business studies, teaches English at some universities in Toulouse. She agrees with James that teaching English is a saturated market. However, she says some attractive options are available if you still want to teach and have the right qualifications and experience.

"Freelancers and professionals should try approaching business schools to teach subjects in English such as marketing, accountancy, engineering, etc, to final-year students," she says. You should also try international schools where you can teach other subjects such as mathematics, history, and geography."

Jennifer also says that having a specialty means you have less competition and earn more money.

"Connections are the key to getting a good job," Jennifer adds, "get in with one school and become friendly with the teachers — that way you'll find out who's looking for more teachers. Personal recommendations work well."

Whichever path you take, be prepared for administrative paperwork, read up on France, and soak up all the strength you can muster for the exciting and life-altering challenge ahead!

For More Information on Working Short- or Long-Term in France

Let's be direct. Getting permission to work over three months in France is usually very long. Student and seasonal work for less than three months is more manageable, and some programs are designed to allow teaching conversational English, au pair work, volunteer programs, and internships for a shorter duration.

The government also addresses the various and often complex paths to longer-term visas and jobs, which often includes a requirement for a residence visa.

The conditions for staying for a "Professional Purpose" can be explored, but note that they subject to change, and are very nuanced.

Alternately, you are eligible to work as a "Self-employed person or liberal activity." This path involves a variety of criteria you must meet that change often enough that it is best to explore the government website.

Note: There is also the working holiday visa that applies to citizens of some countries, including Australia and Canada, if you are between 18-30, that allows work for over three months. If it applies to you, the French website does state that "Citizens of the European Union, European Economic Area, Switzerland, Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and the Vatican may stay in the European territory of France without a visa for longer than 90 days."

Narelle Lewis is an Australian who writes from Toulouse, France.

Related Articles of Interest
Inside the Paid Teaching Assistant Program in France
Working in France: How Non-Europeans Can Work Legally
Related Topics
Living Abroad in France: Key Expatriate Resources
Short-Term Work in France
Teaching English in France

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