Teaching English in Asia
Where and How to Find ESL Jobs
Despite the rumors, a native’s knowledge of the English language is not an automatic passport to employment anywhere abroad. It can, however, be put to profitable use in many Asian countries. In Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Thailand and, increasingly, China a high proportion of the population are eager for tuition from English speakers. A university degree in any subject is the only prerequisite, though in some cases just a degree of enthusiasm will suffice.
Most foreign teachers work as employees of privately-run language institutes whose owners are often much more interested in maximizing profits than in maintaining high educational standards. Working as a self-employed private tutor is more lucrative than teaching at an institute but normally requires considerable experience of the market and suitable premises from which to work.
Teachers must be prepared to face a range of problems and disappointments—from the high cost of housing in Japan to ingrained racist attitudes in many quarters—and a resistance to innovation. However, with tact and perseverance it is possible to overcome some of the obstacles encountered by new arrivals.
Persuading shy or under-confident students to speak in class will be a challenge in many Asian contexts. Like teachers the world over, those who can make their classes fun and can encourage students to use the English they already know, however limited, get the best results and find the job more rewarding.
China: An Explosion of Private Language Schools
The Chinese nation is huge and hungry for the English language. For two decades there has been a flow of native speakers from the West to teach at schools and academic institutions around the country. But the past few years have seen a remarkable explosion in the number of private language institutes and companies, something that would have been unthinkable just a few years ago. The emerging middle class aspires to send their children for private tuition just as in the capitalist countries of Taiwan, Korea, and Japan. So a great many opportunities are opening up and are being advertised abroad especially via the Internet. For example, check en.chinatefl.com for job postings.
The eagerness to import English teachers continues unabated in provincial academic institutes. Many middle schools and normal schools (teacher training colleges) have trouble filling teaching posts and turn to foreign recruitment organizations like CIEE which place U.S. nationals in their Teach in China program. The Chinese Education Association for International Exchange (CEAIE), 37 Damucang Hutong, Beijing 100816; 011-86-10-664 16582, fax 011-86-10-664 16156; www.ceaie.edu.cn recruits for institutes of higher education. CEAIE cooperates with Chinese embassies in the west.
Requirements for teaching posts in China are not always stringent: a university degree is often sufficient and teaching experience counts for more than formal training. In many cases teachers receive free airfare, a local salary, and perks. Wages are best in the big cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shanghai) where there are scores of English schools. But many teachers feel that the drawbacks of Chinese city life are so great that they prefer to work in the provinces for less money. The western provinces like Yunnan are more pleasant and less money-mad than the east coast cities. Once you get a job make sure the school sorts out the various permits for which you are eligible, particularly a teacher’s card that permits half-price rail travel. Ask for help in obtaining a temporary residence so you can avoid the tedious and expensive necessity of renewing your visa.
Indonesia: Foreign Teachers Receive Ten Times Local Wage
The world’s fifth most populous nation, Indonesia, has been rapidly recovering from the political and economic instability that rocked the country at the end of the 1990s. The major language schools survived the crisis and continue to be staffed by foreign teachers. Big companies and rich individuals support about a dozen large schools that can afford to hire trained foreign teachers and pay them about ten times the local wage. Unlike in Thailand and Korea, beginners lacking the appropriate background or training will have to confine their job search to the locally-run back-street schools. The best teaching prospects in Indonesia are for those who have completed some TESL training and are willing to sign a 12- or 18-month contract. Contracts tend to start in July or October. Most jobs are in Jakarta, though there are also schools in Surabaya, Bandung, Yogayakarta, and Solo (among others). Jobs are occasionally advertised in the Jakarta Post or Indonesian Observer. Schools are willing to hire teachers with either a British or North American accent.
Visas are an issue whatever the nationality. Work permit regulations are rigidly adhered to in Indonesia, and all the established schools will apply for a visa permit on your behalf. You must submit your CV, teaching certificate, and other documents to the Indonesian Ministry of Education, the Cabinet Secretariat, and the Immigration/Manpower Developments. English teachers must have English as their first language and be nationals of the U.S., Canada, Britain, Australia, or New Zealand. With more informal teaching positions it is necessary to leave the country every two months (normally a day trip to Singapore).
Most schools pay between six and eight million rupiahs (net) per month ($600-$800) and some offer free accommodation alongside the salary, which permits a comfortable lifestyle.
Japan: The Financial Rewards Can Be Considerable
For decades, North Americans have been tempted to spend a year or two working in the land where English commands an almost reverential respect. The demand for language tuition remains strong, although recession in the late 1990s resulted in the closure of some major companies when fewer Japanese people were willing to pay for expensive English lessons. Consequently, competition for teaching jobs has become more acute. Be prepared to spend a sizeable sum of money while conducting the job hunt because of the high cost of living in Japanese cities. But many people persevere because of their commitment to an extended stay in Japan and also because of the potential earnings. Once established, the financial rewards can be considerable.
Japanese people of all ages eagerly sign up for lessons, especially evening classes, held in schools, town halls, and offices. “Conversation lounges” or “voice rooms” are popular among young adults who simply want to converse or socialize with a native speaker. These can have a relaxed and pleasant atmosphere, though they do not pay well and are probably unsatisfactory for serious English teachers.
The most common means of recruitment after the internet—on websites such as www.ohayosensei.com—is by advertising in English language newspapers, especially the Japan Times on Mondays and, to a lesser extent, Kansai Time Out magazine www.kto.co.jp and Metropolis metropolis.co.jp.
To shine over the competition, you must be prepared when you present yourself to a potential employer. Dress as impeccably and conservatively as possible. Take along (preferably in a smart briefcase) your undergraduate diplomas plus any other education certificates you have earned and a well-produced resume that does not err on the side of modesty. Be prepared at the interview to be tested or to be asked to teach a demonstration lesson.
Anyone arriving in Tokyo to conduct a speculative job hunt should go straight to one of the dozens of “gaijin houses,” relatively cheap long-stay hostels for foreigners, listed in guidebooks or the glossy monthly The Tokyo Journal. Popular gaijin houses will be full of new or nearly new arrivals chasing teaching jobs. Because rents in Tokyo are virtually prohibitive, some foreign teachers stay in gaijin houses throughout their stay.
Most Americans enter Japan on a 90-day tourist visa and then begin the job hunt. The best times are late March and August. The key to obtaining a work visa is to have a sponsoring full-time employer in Japan. If you are hired by a school or company able to offer a full timetable, your employer must take your documents to the Immigration Office for processing within six weeks. Technically, you are not supposed to work until this process is complete, but most schools seem to get you working immediately. Once your visa is confirmed, you must leave the country and apply to a Japanese embassy abroad for your tourist visa to be changed. You can do this in 48 hours in Seoul. The government of Japan will not give work permits to anyone without a university degree.
A third visa option is a “cultural visa.” To qualify, you must be able to prove that you are studying something Japanese like flower arranging, Shiatsu massage, martial arts, or the Japanese language.
If you want to arrange a teaching job in advance, the best bet is the government’s JET (Japan Exchange and Teaching) Program. Each year, more than 6,000 foreign language assistants from 40 countries receive 1-year renewable contracts to work in private and state junior and senior high schools. Anyone with a university degree who is under 40 is eligible to apply. The program is fairly competitive, partly because of the generous salary of ¥3,600,000 (about $44,000) in addition to a free return air ticket on completing a contract. Americans, who make up about 40% of the total of JET participants, should contact their nearest Japanese consulate or the embassy in Washington (JET Office, 2520 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20008; 800-INFO-JET or 202-238-6772, fax 202-265-9484; firstname.lastname@example.org, www.embjapan.org.)
A number of large private organizations recruit abroad. Most pay at least ¥250,000 ($3,000 per month). A major chains to look out for is ECC (for these and others see below).
Korea: Competition for Teaching Jobs Less Acute Than in Japan
The demand for native speaker English teachers in Korea far outstrips the supply, so competition for jobs is much less acute in Korea than in Japan. More than two-thirds of the work available is teaching young children and adolescents so any native speaker with experience of or just enthusiasm for working with children will have a large choice of job offers. Language institutes advertise for teachers on a host of websites such as www.teachkorea.com and www.teachabroad.com/search/south-korea and also in the English language press, principally the Korean Times and Korean Herald. The bias in favor of North American accents helps in the job search and Canadian teachers are particularly in demand, with several recruitment agencies based in Canada actively looking for university graduates willing to give teaching a go for a year, for example Asia-Pacific Connections Ltd (email@example.com, www.asia-pacific-connections.com.
A typical package available through recruiters in exchange for signing a contract to teach a minimum of 120 hours a month is a salary of 1,800,000-2,400,000 won ($1,650-$2,200), return airfare, free accommodations, paid holidays, medical insurance, and a bonus on completion of the contract. It is a requirement of the E2 visa that teachers have a four-year degree or a 3-year degree plus TEFL Certificate.
Jobs are easiest to find at hogwons (language schools) in the Chongro district of Seoul, in Pusan, and in the smaller cities. The minimum qualifications are fluency in English, a bachelor’s degree, and a positive attitude. Berlitz Korea hires dozens of teachers at its schools, while Ding Ding Dang Children’s English also hires 50 native speaker teachers for 18 franchised schools throughout Korea. The English in Korea Program (EPIK) is a scheme run by the Ministry of Education to place more than 1,500 native speakers in schools and education offices. The monthly salary is between 1.7 and 2.1 million won plus accommodations, roundtrip airfare, medical insurance, and visa sponsorship.
Some neophyte teachers who arrange their jobs while still in North America wish they had waited until arrival in Seoul before committing themselves to a school. Often better wages and working conditions can be negotiated in person. Twelve-month contracts normally include a sizeable bonus, so it is in the teacher’s interest to complete the contract. For new arrivals who have not prearranged a job, a good place to pick up information is from Dave’s ESL Café (www.daveseslcafe.com) which has a link to the “Gray Page” with specific warnings about bad employers. The U.S. embassy in Seoul issues a free guide, Teaching English in Korea (American Citizen Services, 82 Sejong Rd., Chongro-ku, Seoul) which is posted on the Internet at seoul.usembassy.gov.
Private tutoring normally requires traveling to the clients, though in Seoul this is less stressful than in Japan since the subway stops are announced in English. Most people who have taught in Korea report that the students are friendly and eager to learn but the hogwan owners are more interested in profit than in honoring their promises and even contracts with native speaker teachers. As a general rule be suspicious of anything that sounds like a dream contract. Lessons are not generally strenuous since the emphasis is on conversation rather than grammar.
Taiwan: Only Requirements Are College Degree and a Pulse
It has been said that the only requirements for being hired as an English teacher in Taiwan are a college degree and a pulse. Despite changes in immigration legislation which have made it more difficult for foreigners to undertake private tutoring, the demand for college-educated native speaking teachers who are prepared to stay for at least one year is huge. Many of the hundreds of private children’s language institutes (as in Korea, the children’s ESL market predominates), cram schools (called buhsibans) and also some state secondary schools are keen to sponsor foreign teachers for the necessary visas.
The requirements for a working permit include the original of your university diploma, health certificates issued in Taiwan (including an HIV test and chest X-ray), and a 1-year contract signed by your employer. This must be done within the 60-day validity of your Visitor Visa. With the working permit you can obtain a resident visa and ARC (Alience Resident Certificate). The American accent is invariably preferred, especially in the capital Taipei. Yet not everyone wants to stay in Taipei where the air pollution is second only to that of Mexico City; the traffic congestion is appalling, and the rents are high. Jobs are plentiful in the other cities of Taiwan such as Kaohsiung, Taichung, and Tainan. The majority of schools pay at least NTD$550 ($18) per hour, and quite a few pay NTD$700 after a teacher has proved him or herself. Fees for private tuition are considerably higher.
To see which schools are hiring, check ads in the daily South China Post and notice boards at travelers’ hostels and the Mandarin Training Center of Taiwan Normal Univ. on Hoping East Rd. Recruiting agents can be tracked down though they do not proliferate as is the case of Korea. Try Taiwan-Teachers www.taiwan-teachers.com — they can arrange interviews in Boston and Canada as well as Kaohsiung.
Thailand: Teaching Jobs Are Virtually Guaranteed
While Bangkok absorbs an enormous number of English teachers, both trained and untrained, there is also demand in the other cities such as Hat Yai, Chiang Mai in the north, and Songkhla in the south, where there is less competition for work. Not much teacher recruitment takes place outside Thailand. Even Thai universities and teachers’ colleges, as well as private business colleges, all of which have EFL departments, depend on finding native-speaking teachers locally.
In short, anyone who is determined to teach in Thailand and prepared to go there to look for work is virtually guaranteed to find opportunities. Finding language schools to approach is not a problem. Most new arrivals in Bangkok start with the English language yellow pages. Job vacancy notices appear in the English language press: The Bangkok Post and The Nation. Popular hostels often have bulletin boards with job notices and other information for foreigners. The best place to start the actual job hunting is around Siam Square and the Victory Monument where language schools and institutes abound. Check the Teaching in Thailand web site www.ajarn.com for inside information on potential employers.
First impressions are important throughout Asia. Dress smartly for interviews. A professional-looking resume and references help. University graduates (ajarn) are highly respected in Thailand and are expected to look respectable. At your interviews, be prepared to undergo a grammar test. As usual, it may be necessary to start with part-time and occasional work with several employers, aiming to build up 20-30 hours in the same area to minimize traveling in the appalling traffic conditions of Bangkok (smog masks are cheap and a wise investment).
The busiest season for English schools is mid-March to mid-May during the school holidays, when many secondary school and university students take extra tuition in English. This coincides with the hot season. The next best time to look for work in private schools is October. The worst time is January and February.
Working as a self-employed private tutor pays better than working for a commercial school, but tutoring jobs are hard to set up until you have been settled in one place for a while and found out how to tap into the local elite community. Placing an ad for private pupils in English language papers often works. Possible venues for would-be teachers include hotels where a native speaker is needed to organize conversation classes for staff.
The vast majority of EFL teachers in Thailand do not have a work visa, and this seems to cause no serious problems. At present, foreigners mostly teach on a tourist visa or (preferably) a non-immigrant visa. So far a crackdown, threatened by the authorities, has not happened. Universities and established language schools may be willing to apply for a work permit on behalf of teachers who have proved themselves successful in the classroom and who are willing to sign a 1-year contract. To be eligible for a work permit you must have a minimum of a BA and, in most cases, a relevant teaching certificate. However, most teachers simply cross the border into Malaysia every three months where a new visa can quickly and easily be obtained from the Thai consulate.
In a country where teaching jobs are so easy to come by, there has to be a catch—low wages. The basic hourly rate in Bangkok is only about 250-300 baht (less than $10), with a few schools paying less and some promising considerably more, especially if travel to outside locations is required. Rates outside Bangkok are lower.
By the same token, living expenses are also low. Out of an average monthly salary of 25,000 baht ($815) teachers can expect to pay 4,000-5,000 baht ($130-$160) in rent, even in Bangkok. Tasty food can be had from street stalls for a few baht, and more substantial and exciting meals exploiting the area’s marvelous fresh fish and fruit cost about $2-3. There is no reason why even part-time teachers should not be able to afford to travel around the country, including to the islands, where life is slow and the beaches are wonderful.
South Asia: Teaching Jobs Scarce Because of Poverty
In contrast to Thailand and Indonesia, it is generally not easy to find work as an English teacher in countries between Pakistan and the Phillipines. Poverty is the main reason for the small market for expatriate teachers. Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei, which are relatively wealthy, mainly turn to Britain for teachers.
However, those foreigners prepared to finance themselves and volunteer their time can find eager students simply by asking around in Sri Lanka, India, and (especially) Nepal. Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and even the pariah state of Myanmar are developing a range of commercial institutes devoted to English language teaching. In Vietnam, the daily paper Nguoi Vet publishes its Thursday edition in English, so check for ads (or consider placing your own).
Nepal is a more promising destination than India for short-term English teachers willing to work for low wages. Insight Nepal (www.insightnepal.org.np) has a Placement for Volunteer Service Work program in which volunteers are allocated to primary and secondary schools in different areas of the country for between three and four months to teach English, science, and sports. Starting dates are in February, August, and October. The participation fee covers pre-orientation and a one-week village or trekking excursion; the host village provides food and accommodations.
Resources for Teaching English in China
Amity Foundation, www.amityfoundation.org. Christian organization which places native speaker teachers in schools and colleges.
Appalachians Abroad Teach in China Program, Marshall Univ., Center for International Programs, 1 John Marshall Drive, Huntington, WV 25755; 304-696-6265, fax 304-696-6353; firstname.lastname@example.org, www.marshall.edu/gochina. Thirty graduates per year teach English at public and private K-12 schools and higher education institutions mainly in Shanghai and Beijing.
Buckland International Education Group, Buckland ESL Hostel, P.O. Box 555, Yanshuo Guilin, China 541900; 011-86-13307732755; email@example.com, www.bucklandgroup.org. Recruits native speakers of English to offer conversation teaching for five or 11 months in different areas of China.
Colorado China Council, 4556 Apple Way, Boulder, CO 80301; 303-443-1108; www.asiacouncil.org. Graduates and others from the U.S. are placed as teachers at institutes throughout summer and year-rount in China.
EF English First China, www.englishfirst.com/trt/, offers training and contract to work in many locations across China.
Ready to Learn, www.readytolearn.com.hk in Hong Kong. Employs native speakers with college degrees.
WorldTeach, One Brattle Square, Suite 550, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; tel. 857.259.6646 ext. 201, fax 857.259.6638, www.worldteach.org. Volunteer teaching program at language camps for Chinese high school students both summer and year-long. See the website for costs.
Resources for Teaching English in Indonesia
EF English First. Website: www.englishfirst.com. Number of teachers: nearly 500 for 50 schools throughout Indonesia. Preference of nationality: British, Canadian, Australian, American or New Zealanders only (due to work visa restrictions). Qualifications: TEFL/ TESL certificate indicating 120 hours of classwork and observed, evaluated practice teaching. Experience, documentation and references may be submitted in lieu of the certificate. Conditions of employment: 12-month contracts.
Executive English Programs (EEP), www.eepbdg.com.
Resources for Teaching English in Japan
AEON International USA, www.aeonet.com.
Berlitz, www.berlitz.com. Local branches hire native speaker teachers year round.
ECC Foreign Language Institute, www.ecc.co.jp. Offices in Osaka and Nagoya also. Over 300 teachers recruited in Japan only.
Interac Co Ltd, www.interacnetwork.com/recruit/. Branches recruit most of their 280 teachers locally.
Westgate Corporation, firstname.lastname@example.org; www.westgate.co.jp. Provides native English instructors mostly to its client universities in the Kanto area (including Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba and other prefectures) as well as some other areas in Japan.
Resources for Teaching English in Korea
Berlitz, www.berlitz.com, has local branches throughout Korea..
English Program in Korea (EPIK), www.epik.go.kr. North American applicants for teaching posts in schools and education offices through the Ministry of Education should contact their nearest Korean Consulate for information. Scheme is not usually over-subscribed.
John’s Consulting Canada, www.iloveesl.com. Recruits teachers on behalf of some of the 90 Wonderland Language Institutes.
YBM Education/ELS. Division for children’s language schools is called YBM/Sisa or YBM/ECC; www.ybmsisa.com.
Resources for Teaching English in Taiwan
Kojen English Language Schools, www.kojenenglish.com. From 200-300 teachers in 3 main cities.
Hess Educational Organization, www.hess.com.tw. Website gives email addresses of overseas recruiters. Specializes in teaching children including kindergarten-age. 400 Native Speaking Teachers (NSTs) must be college graduates. Very structured teaching program and curriculum.
International Avenue Consulting Company, www.iacc.com.tw. Currently expanding number of teachers.
Resources for Teaching English in Thailand
American University Language Centre, www.auathailand.org. Employs 80 plus teachers in central Bangkok and about 100 at other branches in 11 provinces, mainly at universities. Applicants should have a BA and be able to commit themselves to a six-week stint. Also try Chiang Mai branch: 73 Rajadamnern Rd., Amphur Muang, Chiang Mai 50200; 011-66-53-211973.
ECC (Thailand), email@example.com, www.eccthai.com/jobs.asp. Chain of language schools with 50 branches employing 500 native speaker teachers, who must have a bachelor’s degree and at least six months teaching experience or a CELTA entry level qualification.
Siam Computer and Language Institute, www.siamcom.co.th. Over 70 branches in Bangkok and the provinces.
SUSAN GRIFFITH is co-editor of Work Abroad and author of the book Teaching English Abroad. See Susan's bio for more information about her extensive bibliography or to purchase her book.
Featured Articles on Teaching English in Asia