Responsible Travel and Ecotourism in Mexico and Central America
|Mexico City - Xochimilco.
In 2007 Xochimilco celebrated its 20th anniversary as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Latin America is the cradle of ecotourism. First touted as a development strategy to preserve the wilderness and development employment in Celestún, Mexico by Hector Ceballos-Lascurain in 1983, ecotourism was adopted by many countries including Costa Rica and Ecuador as a viable way to promote rural tourism and environmental awareness.
Costa Rica quickly became the poster child for green travel and ecotourism thanks to a plethora of scientific research and the success of the New Key guidebook (now in an impressive 18th edition!).
Global tourism has matured in the past decade to offer new options for travelers wishing their journeys to be as eco-friendly, people-friendly and place-friendly as possible. Call it ecotourism, call it responsible travel, call it whatever you'd like--there is no standard definition used by locals and visitors alike. Many travelers now simply wish to experience an enjoyable trip that causes no harm to hosts and the host environment. Many locals likewise are predisposed to extend their hospitality to those visitors who abide by this new “golden rule” of modern travel.
A growing number of travelers want their journeys to be less invasive and more beneficial to the communities they visit. Such travelers wish to better understand the culture of the places they visit. Responsible travel fundamentally comes down to treating others the way they wish to be treated. While tourism campaigns have long touted “destinations”—the reality is that when we travel we usually entering a place that is someone else's home.
Says noted author and activist Deborah McLaren: "Responsible tourism is based on ethics and human rights. It also means support for community-based travelers' programs--homestays, guest cottages, ethno-museums, and educational programs that bring tourist dollars directly into communities.”
Eco Travel in Mexico
Environmental awareness and tourism have yet to tread the same path. Sometimes it seems as though environmental tourism in Mexico is like the famed Copper Canyon--a gorge in Chihuahua deeper than the Grand Canyon in the United States. Conservation is marooned on one side, tourism on the other. Sometimes it appears that there's no bridge across the abyss.
Perhaps it's the hybrid origin of “ecotourism” that makes each side distrust the concept. Conservationists shudder when tourism leaders brand amusement parks as ecotourism destinations. Likewise, when environmentalists devise complicated eco-trips that tour operators cannot book, the operators see ecotourism as nothing more than utopian whimsy.
Until recently, most of Mexico's protected areas and biosphere reserves were simply off-limits to tourism. Either the government tried to keep areas visitor-free due to the lack of park guides, or the areas themselves were too remote from the main tourism corridors to attract visitors. In the 1990s, though, organized tours and individual travelers discovered and raved about the natural wonders of Mexico.
Whether to watch birds or whales, people began visiting to experience the diversity and beauty of nature. Mexican tourism providers discovered the accompanying economic benefits of offering natural history tours, and communities themselves began to see that ecotourism offered the potential to diversify their income base. Given the diversity of Mexico's wildlife and natural attractions, a broader approach to tourism in the country makes sense.
Immersion courses in Spanish language have provided a cultural context in the country which helps expand visitors' understanding. Language schools in Mexico often take pride in linking students to community events. There has been less promotion of volunteering in Mexico than Ecuador, for example. But many language schools are beginning to promote responsible visits to rural communities, parks, and protected areas.
Eco Travel in Central America
Central America is known as a prime destination for those who enjoy nature travel, due in large part to the reputation gained by Costa Rica over the past two decades. Yet there are few efforts to develop the entire region for passionate eco travelers. For some, cynicism arises due to the fact that in the 1990s several Central American countries set up their own national ecotourism associations. Unfortunately, many of these associations have been created in government conferences, often at the urging of international development agencies, and few show a long-term commitment to ecotourism development.
Travelers wishing to visit rural communities, parks, and protected areas are advised to do plenty of research ahead of time via guidebooks and Web searches. Good places to start include Costa Rica's New Key.
On balance, there are many excellent ecotourism options. Since much of the ecotourism movement first took root in this region of the world, Central American tourism providers offer some of the most comprehensive and best organized eco tours in the world.
Tips for Being a Responsible Traveler
Attempt to learn the local language: Learn and use a few words starting with “hello” and “thank you.” If you have the time, take a Spanish language class.
Be respectful of people’s privacy: Some people simply do not wish to be visited—for cultural, historical, or political reasons; many natives have also been brutalized by national governments. In rural communities, wait until you are invited to approach homes or groups of people.
Be respectful of community restrictions: Some communities may be closed to visitors. Natural attractions might be off limits for cultural or environmental reasons. When in doubt as to whether or not to proceed, ask first.
Be respectful of indigenous people: Traditional land owners should be acknowledged. Indigenous people working in tourism take seriously their role of welcoming visitors and explaining their culture. Recognize their connection to the land and you will learn to see the world with a new set of eyes.
Buy local crafts: If you are looking for a gift or a souvenir, patronize the arts and demonstrate your support for the local culture. Buying from a local artisan can cut out 40 steps in the traditional export chain. What not to buy? Items made from endangered animals or pirated archaeological treasures.
Contribute to a local charity: Ask around to find out which social or environmental efforts can make use of your time and expertise, or provide financial contributions which members of the local community may use for essential projects.
Take books with you and leave books: Global understanding could vastly be improved if we took (and left) better books on our trips. Once you have decided where you are traveling, research your destination and email local groups or individuals to ask if you can bring something needed. It's a variation of the Platinum Rule (treating others as they would like to be treated). If you have academic tendencies, find out if the local libraries can use more technical materials and offer them something they can use.
Rethink travel photography: Planeta.com's campaign for Responsible Travel Photography asks travelers to rethink some elements of traditional travel photography to be more sensitive to the social mores and requirements of the local community.
Pick up the trash: Actions speak louder than words. If you are concerned about the environment, show that you care by picking up trash or simply making a point of taking your trash with you. As the adage goes, “pack it in, pack it out.”
| Oaxaca City, Mexico - Weavers from nearby Teotitlan del Valle promote the
community museum and visits to the home workshops of the village's artisans
at the 2007 Rural Tourism Fair.
For More Information
The Best Websites
There are zillions of websites, blogs, wikis, and social media sites, so do you start? No need to wade through search engine results; go to the best of the best. Here's our list of choice sites:
Mexico Connect: Features for the expat community and travelers; www.mexconnect.com.
Brazilmax: Hip gringo's guide to all things Brazil; www.brazilmax.com.
Planeta: Global Journal of Practical Ecotourism; www.planeta.com.
Honduras This Week: Central America's finest English language newspaper; www.hondurasthisweek.com.
South American Explorers: Member organization with offices in South America and the United States; www.samexplo.org.
Thorn Tree: Lonely Planet's contribution to the online dialogue; thorntree.lonelyplanet.com.
Viva Travel: The travel guide you create; www.vivatravelguides.com.
LAMP: Spotlight on Latin America
Looking for news about Latin America? Check out the Latin America Media Project (LAMP), a collaborative effort to spotlight quality websites with distinct points of view about the region. LAMP celebrates its fifth anniversary in October 2008. Members generally budget 1-2 hours per month to keep us informed of your current work by posting news in the LAMP Forum.
Are you a fan of Flickr? Viva Web 2.0! The photography website offers some of the best photos of Central America and Mexico. Searches on Flickr’s website result in amazing discoveries, particularly for those looking for off-the-beaten-path towns as well as some inspiring photography. There are some wonderful collaborative groups including Mexican Palette, Oaxaca Trees, and Central America.
Featured galleries created by Transitions Abroad's Latin America editor Ron Mader document the region. Highlights include Lessons from Mexico, Oaxaca Markets, and Oaxaca Baseball.
Are you a fan of Youtube? Check out the news updates from Honduras This Week—www.youtube.com/user/htwOnline—and Oaxaca market videos online at Ron Mader's video channel—www.youtube.com/user/ronmader.